# What are Roman Numbers?

## Description

There are various different types of numbers in mathematics such as whole numbers, natural numbers, real numbers, and so on. Likewise, a number that is used to represent the combination of letters in Latin alphabets is defined as the roman number. It is also known as the roman numerals. The use of these numbers originally started from ancient Rome and was in use till the late eighteenth century in Europe. Having said that, roman numerals are still in use but not comprehensively. Some examples of these numerals are as follows: 1 = I, 2 = II, 3 = III, 9 = XI, 10 = XX etc. In this article, we will try to cover some basic concepts regarding roman numbers such as the process and steps of writing them, and do a detailed analysis about them.

## Methods of Writing Roman Numbers

As mentioned above, roman numbers or numerals is a way of representing the mathematical numerals in Latin words. The following points analyses the process of writing roman numbers.

1. Let us consider a number as ‘65’. In this method, we will break the number ‘65’ in the minimum or least expandable form. Such as, 65 = 5 + 10 + 50 = V + X + L = LXV.  Similarly, you can write the mathematical numeral into roman numbers. Some more examples are as follows,

15 = 10 + 5 = X + V = XV

25 = 10 + 10 + 5 = XXV

8 = 5 + 3 = VIII

12 = 10 + 1 + 1 = XII

1. In the second method, we shall consider the group of numerals to be added. For example, 65 = 5 + 60 = LX + V = LXV. Some more examples are as follows,

75 = 50 + 10 + 10 + 5 = LXXV.

## Some Significant rules to be Remembered to write Roman Numbers

In the paragraph mentioned above, we dealt with the different methods while writing the roman numbers. The following points analyze those rules,

1. Whenever a letter is bigger than the other one, the arithmetic operation of addition is used. For example, 110 is written as CX. Here, C is greater than X, thus C + X = 100 + 10 = 110.
2. Whenever a letter is smaller than the other one, the arithmetic operation of subtraction is used. For example, 4 is written as IV. Here, I is Smaller than V. Thus, V – I = 4 = IV.
3. Whenever an alphabet or letter is repeated, again and again, they use the operation of addition. For example, 300 is written as MMM. Here, M is repeating again. Thus, 1000 is added three times to get 3000.
4. The alphabets or letters such as V, D, and L cannot be repeated, they will only be used once in the representation.

## History of Roman Numbers

The use of Roman numbers started from the Roman empire as the name suggests. After the 14th century, the archeologists say that the roman number was replaced by the numbers of Arabic. Having said that, it does not signify that the roman numbers do not exist in use. In today’s world, the use of these numbers is extensive in the empire of Rome. They are often used in the faces of the clock.